Computer Memory

On The Topic Of Virtual Memory

April 23rd, 2014

Virtual memory is means that computing systems are able to operate, or maybe more precisely, how they contribute to the function of a standard computer’s abilities. It can be more complex the deeper you get into it, but if you can understand more of those complex languages that create various aspects when working in alternate computational environments with the ease of hot knife and butter clichés, then you can better understand the ideas related to the concepts inherent with virtual memory. Virtual memory, or virtual memory addressing, is a memory management technique.

This system of memory management allows for multitasking computer operating systems to which non-contiguous memory is presented to a software or process as contiguous memory, typically used in paged memory systems, and this contiguous memory is referred to as the virtual address space. The term virtual memory is often confused with memory swapping, often attributed to the Windows family of operating systems referring to the enabling and disabling of memory swapping as a sort of virtual memory, but Windows uses paged memory and virtual memory addressing even if the so-called virtual memory is disabled.

When virtual memory is used in paged memory systems, it is often combined with memory swapping, and is also known as anonymous memory paging whereby memory pages stored in primary storage are written to secondary storage. When this occurs, it is thus freeing faster primary storage for other processes to use, and this is often referred to as a swap file or swap partition. Virtual memory allows software to run in a memory address space that’s size and addressing are not necessarily tied to the computer’s physical memory, and to properly implement virtual memory, the CPU must provide a way for the operating system to map virtual memory to physical memory.

For it to detect when an address is required that does not currently relate to main memory so that the needed data can be swapped in, it would certainly be possible to provide virtual memory without the CPU’s assistance, as it would essentially require emulating a CPU that would provide the needed features. This is what is meant when virtual memory is really being referred to, and unlike the misnomer created by Microsoft in regards to this type of memory, now you know a bit more about the fact of the matter.

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USB Memory Sticks: A Super Convenient Way To Take Data With You

April 23rd, 2014

Since 1998 when the first flash drive was invented by Dov Moran, these slender little devices have revolutionized the notion of data transference and how it fits into our everyday lives. We can download MP3s and video files form our personal computers to bring along to friends’ places where we can share the relevant information with them.

The typical USB memory stick has a male A-type USB connector at one end as well as a small circuit board inside. On the circuit board several surface mounted integrated circuits and a little power circuitry is mounted. Usually one of the surface mounted integrated circuits is used to provide an interface to the USB port itself.

The main portions of a USB memory stick include:

• A USB mass storage controller that creates and maintains a linear interface to a block oriented series of flash devices. The storage controller also hides the complexities of block orientation, wear balancing, block erasures, and wear leveling. The controller also includes a small microprocessor as well as a tiny bit of on chip random access memory and red only memory.

• A male, A-type USB connector that offers the physical connection between the memory stick and the user’s computer.

• A NAND flash memory chip is able to store and retrieve data. Many times NAND flash memory is also used in digital cameras.

• A crystal oscillator is used to produce the clock signal that controls the USD device’s output through a phase locked loop.

Additionally, many USB memory sticks have such accessories as LEDs to indicate transfers or writes and reads, jumpers, write protect switches and several other nifty features. If you want to find out more about the various additional features that may suit you, check out a consumer interest site such as http://epinions.com.

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Replacing Notebook Memory

April 23rd, 2014

First, know what kind of random access memory you need in your notebook. Without the right kind of memory, your notebook isn’t going to run any faster. Ad if the new memory is replacing current memory modules and you choose the wrong kind, it simply won’t run at all. So be sure you know which kind of notebook memory you need before going online to purchase it somewhere.

Compatibility is key when it comes to notebook memory installation or upgrading. You should check to see if your computer’s warranty will be null and void if you install the RAM yourself. Also, check your system very carefully and see what kind of RAM it has as well as the maximum amount of RAM it can handle. Some manufacturers actually seal your computer case and you must have an authorized technician to install your RAM if you don’t want to void your notebook’s warranty.

The final step is to decide just how much RAM your notebook needs. You need at least 256 MB of random access memory to run Mac OS X or Windows XP, and about 128 MB of RAM for any other older operating systems. To run games or lots of office software you may want around 512MB of RAM. For graphic designers running graphics intensive editing programs, we’re talking about RAM up to 2GB or more.

Increasing the speed of the RAM will not make any difference, only increasing the amount of RAM in your notebook will result in increased performance for your notebook or personal computer. Besides RAM, oftentimes the next best improvement is to upgrade a video or graphics card. This will be especially productive for computers that handle a lot of games.

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Computer Memory: Who Is Smarter, You Or Your Computer?

April 23rd, 2014

There are several different types of memory a computer can have. Read only memory, or ROM, is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. Random access memory, usually known by its acronym, RAM, refers to data storage formats and equipment that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order. In contrast, other types of memory devices, such as magnetic tapes, disks, and drums, can access data on the storage medium only in a predetermined order due to constraints in their mechanical design. Molecular memory stores information in polymers that can store electric charge. Molecular memory might be especially suited for primary storage.

Main memory contains the programs that are currently being run and the data the programs are operating on. The arithmetic and logic unit can very quickly transfer information between a processor register and locations in main storage, also known as a memory addresses. In modern computers, electronic solid state random access memory is used for main storage, and is directly connected to the CPU via a memory bus and a data bus. The memory bus is also called an address bus or front side bus and both busses are high speed digital superhighways. Access methods and speed are two of the fundamental technical differences between memory and mass storage devices. All memory sizes and storage capacities will inevitably be exceeded with advances in technology over time.

Cache memory is a special type of internal memory used by many central processing units to increase their performance or throughput. Some of the information in the main memory is duplicated in the cache memory, which is slightly slower but of much greater capacity than the processor registers, and faster but much smaller than main memory. Multi level cache memory is also commonly used. Primary cache is the smallest, fastest and closest to the processing device. Secondary cache is larger and slower, but still faster and much smaller than main memory.

Semiconductor memory uses semiconductor based integrated circuits to store information. A semiconductor memory chip may contain millions of tiny transistors or capacitors. Both volatile and non volatile forms of semiconductor memory exist. In modern computers, primary storage almost exclusively consists of dynamic volatile semiconductor memory or dynamic random access memory. Since the turn of the century, a type of non volatile semiconductor memory known as flash memory has steadily gained share as offline storage for home computers. Non volatile semiconductor memory is also used for secondary storage in various advanced electronic devices and specialized computers.

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Shopping For DDR Memory

April 23rd, 2014

There are a few tips that will help you make sure that you’re getting just the right kind of DDR memory for your computer. There are many different makers and types of computer memory modules and many of these modules are made from the very same memory chips. This is why name brand DDR memory modules are not usually any better than generic or off name DDR memory modules.

Be certain that you are getting DDR memory with the correct pin count. This is one of the most critical elements to get right when shopping for some new DDR memory, yet many people get it wrong because they confuse types of DDR memory. For example, DDR and DDR2 are not interchangeable. In desktop personal computers, DDR will have 182 pins and DDR2 will have 240 pins.

DDR memory typically must be installed in groups of two to be effective. Fro example, a computer system will not operate with one or three DDR memory modules, but requires either two or four DDR memory models in order to function properly.

Be sure not to get taken when it comes to shipping rates for computer memory. The internet is the best place to shop for computer memory, but be sure to investigate a prospective seller’s feedback and customer service rating before committing to a purchase. Remember, DDR memory is very tiny and while it should be packed well, it shouldn’t weight more than a few ounces and as such, shipping should never be more then $5-$9.

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Personal Computer Memory Upgrades

April 17th, 2014

Most personal computers show a visible improvement in performance if you upgrade or add memory to bring the total between 64MB and 128MB. Actually, Windows XP recommends 128MB as a minimum amount of memory. For running most of today’s software and operating systems, it’s very reasonable to setup your computer with at least 512MB of memory.

Adding Random Access Memory (RAM) is the most cost effective way to boost your personal computer’s performance. If you are running Windows 98 or newer and you have less than 64MB of memory then you will notice a performance improvement by adding more random access memory.

Many computer problems are due to the use of sub-quality random access memory. Companies such as Corsair and Kingston have good reputations. Mushkin makes the highest quality RAM for those willing to pay a top of the line kind of price, but for top quality RAM without paying extra take some time to shop around.

There are all kinds of consumer interest comparison shopping websites that will steer you in the right direction and then it’s just a matter of finding the best price on the RAM that you want to upgrade your computer with. Oftentimes the best place to find the lowest prices on computer memory is at online auction websites, like http://eBay.com.

Not all computer memory is the same. For example, older computers use SIMM memory modules whereas DIMM memory modules are common today. With older SIMM memory you may be surprised to discover that you need to by two sticks for every amount of increase to memory. This can put a damper on computer memory expansion plans. But even among compatible memory modules, there are a number of manufacturer’s from which to choose. It’s not only important to purchase RAM that’s compatible with your computer, it’s important to choose top quality RAM.

That said, there are several top quality RAM products available at some very discount stores, websites and online auction marketplaces. Just be sure to check on a seller’s feedback and customer service history and you’ll find the best supplier of your next computer memory.

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